Fruit set

Fruit set: after pollination the capsules start ripening. You can easily tell which flowers were pollinated because the capsules are bigger and generally stand more upright. They open at three slits in the capsule. Aided by the wind the dustlike seeds can spread.

Appendix 2 of our book “The flower of the European orchid – Form and function” lists the percentage of fruit set of many European orchids. This gives an exhaustive overview on 10 pages. The images help identify the orchid species when they are fainted. Our book presents images of fruit set of all European orchid genera.

In Appendix 4 all known numbers of seeds per capsule are listed.

There is often a distinct difference between orchids that rely on insect pollination and orchids that self-fertilise (the process is called autogamy). Appendix 3 lists all European orchid species that are reported to be (partly or totally) autogamous.

 

Publications

Publications by Jean Claessens and Jacques Kleynen

Most articles are free for download

 

Claessens, J., J. Kleynen & G. Verschoor 2018: De Mannetjesorchis in Zuid-Limburg, Deel 1. Onderzoek naar toestand en vitaliteit. Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 107(5): 73-80 PDF

Verschoor, G., J. Claessens & J. Kleynen 2018: De Mannetjesorchis in Zuid-Limburg, deel 2. Karakteristiek van de groeiplaatsen. Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 107(5): 92- 100 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2018: The pollination of European orchids Part 7. Autogamy: Neotinea maculata and Corallorhiza trifida. Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 15(2): 50-55 PDF

Claessens, J. 2018: Tenerife, orchideeën en meer. Liparis 24: 81-87

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2018: Orchis mascula in Zuid-Limburg (Nederland).  Liparis 24: 92-95

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2017: The Pollination of European Orchids Part 6: Nectar As Attractant: Gymnadenia conopsea and Neottia ovata. Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 14(4): 130-136 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2017: De verleidingskunsten van orchideeën. Planten 6: 12-14 PDF

Claessens, J & B. Seiffert 2017: Significant ant pollination in two orchid species in the Alps as adaptation to the climate of the alpine zone? Tuexenia 37: 363-374 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2016: Pollinie et pollinaire, une question de definition. L’Orchidophile 210: 197-201 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2016: Many Ways to Get Happy: pollination modes of European Epipactis species. Orchid Digest 80(3): 144-152 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2016: The Pollination of European Orchids Part 5: Himantoglossum and Anacamptis, Two Examples of Deceptive Pollination. Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 13(4): 114-122 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2016: The Pollination of European Orchids Part 4: Goodyera and Spiranthes. Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 13: 54-61 PDF

Claessens, J., S. Ulenberg & B. Gravendeel 2016: Torymus arcticus (Torymidae), ein neuer Bestäuber für Chamorchis alpina. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 45 (1): 133-138 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2016: Orchidées d’Europe fleur et pollinisation. Biotope, 448 pages

Claessens, J., Beentjes, K. K., Heijerman, T., Miller, J., & Gravendeel, B. 2015: Beobachtungen von Miarus campanulae als Bestäuber von Cephalanthera rubra – Journal Europäischer Orchideen 47(1): 77-87 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen, 2015: Bestuiving bij Europese orchideeën – meerdere manieren om gelukkig te worden. Liparis 21: 21-30

Claessens, J. 2015: Himantoglossum metlesicsianum in Northern Tenerife: An Endangered Orchid. Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 12 (1): 23-29 PDF

Claessens, J., J. Kleynen & B. Gravendeel, 2015: Bijzondere bestuivers bij orchideeën deel 4: De Honingbij, een ongewone bestuiver van de Groene nachtorchis (Honeybees, unusual pollinators of Dactylorhiza viridis). Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 104(5): 86-88 PDF

Claessens, J., J. Kleynen & Th. Ulrich 2014: Widerbart – Epipogium aphyllum – Ergänzende Beobachtungen. AGEO-Mitteilungen 2/2014: 32-38 PDF

Claessens, J. 2014: Ein Vorkommen von Himantoglossum metlesicsianum im Norden Teneriffas. Berichte Arbeitskreis Heim. Orchid, 31(1): 213-218 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2014: The pollination of European Orchids Part 3: Limodorum and Epipactis. Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 11(2): 64-71 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2014: Bijzondere bestuivers bij orchideeën deel 3: Honingbij en Hoornaar als bestuivers van de Brede wespenorchis. Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 103(12): 313-317 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2014: Bijzondere bestuivers bij orchideeën deel 2: Bijen als bestuivers van de Grote keverorchis (Neottia ovata). Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 103(5): 140-142 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2014: Bijzondere bestuivers bij orchideeën deel 1: Hommels als bestuivers van de Grote muggenorchis. – Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 103(2): 30-32 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2013: Honigbienen (Apis mellifera) als Bestäuber von Goodyera repens. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 45(1): 133-138 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2013: The pollination of European orchids – part 2: Cypripedium and Cephalanthera. – Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 10 (4): 114-120 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2013: The pollination of European orchids – part 1: Introduction and the genera Orchis and Dactylorhiza. – Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society 10 (3): 83-89 PDF

Claessens, J., & J. Kleynen 2012: Bestäubung bei Europäischen Orchideen zwischen Allogamie und Autogamie–einige Beispiele. Berichte Arbeitskreise Heimischer Orchideen Beiheft 8: 14-32 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2012: De bloem van de Europese orchidee, deel 1: Vorm – Orchideeën (74)2: 34-37 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2012: De bloem van de Europese orchidee, deel 2: De vroege bloeiers – Orchideeën (74)3: 55-59 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2012: De bloem van de Europese orchidee, deel 3: De late bloeiers – Orchideeën (74)4: 84-88 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2011: The Flower of the European Orchid – Form and Function. Geulle, Claessens & Kleynen publishers, 440 pages PDF

Claessens, J., B. Gravendeel & J. Kleynen 2008: Cucullia umbratica L. als Bestäuber von Platanthera x hybrida Bruegg. in Süd-Limburg (Niederlande). – Journal Europäischer Orchideen 40(1): 73-84 PDF

Gravendeel, B., J. Claessens & J. Kleynen 2007: Mysterieuze bestuiver ontmaskerd. – Zuidvruchten 6: 4

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2006: Anmerkungen zur Hybridbildung bei Platanthera bifolia und P. chlorantha. – Journal Europäischer Orchideen 38(1): 3-28 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 2005: Pollination in the European orchids: four examples (Cephalanthera, Ophrys apifera, Corallorhiza trifida, Epipogium aphyllum) – Proceedings 18th World Orchid Conference Dijon-France: 572-577 PDF

Claessens, J., J. Kleynen, A.& H. Baum & F. Opitz 2004: Epipactis leptochila var. neglecta in der Eifel – Journal für den Orchideenfreund 11 (1): 15-20 PDF

Claessens, J & J. Kleynen 2002: Investigations on the autogamy in Ophrys apifera Hudson. – Jahresberichte des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Wuppertal 55: 62-77 PDF

Baum, A. & H., J. Claessens & J. Kleynen 2002: Ophrys apifera HUDSON, eine variable Art. – Jahresberichte des naturwissenschaftlichen  Vereins Wuppertal 55: 78-94 PDF

Arbeitskreis Heimische Orchideen NRW 2001: Die Orchideen Nordrhein-Westfalens. – We wrote the sections: „Morphologie des Säulchens der europäischen Orchideen“ and “Bestäubungsbiologie der Epipactis-Arten”

Claessens, M. & J. Claessens 2000: Een vondst van Orchis sancta L. op Kreta. – Eurorchis 12: 45-46 PDF

Claessens, J., J. Kleynen & J. Reinhardt 2000: Some notes on the genus Epipactis. – Eurorchis 12: 75-83 PDF

Kleynen, J. 2000: Epipactis phyllanthes, uitsluitend een atlantische soort? – Eurorchis 12: 38-45 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1999: Quelques réflexions sur le polymorphisme dans le genre Epipactis. – Naturalistes belges 80 (Orchid. 12) : 333-342 PDF

Claessens, J., J. Kleynen & R. Wielinga 1998: Some notes on Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz ssp. neerlandica (Buttler) and Epipactis renzii (Robatsch). – Eurorchis 10: 55-64 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1998: Le gynostème des orchidées européennes. – Cahiers de la Société Française d’Orchidées no 4: 94-104 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1998: Die Säulchenstruktur der europäischen Orchideen. – Jahresberichte des naturwissenschaftlichen  Vereins Wuppertal 51: 629-637 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1998: Column structure and pollination of Corallorhiza trifida Châtelain (Orchidaceae) – Journal Europäischer Orchideen 30 (3): 624-628 PDF

Claessens, J & J. Kleynen 1998: Über die Hamulus-Definition. – Journal Europäischer Orchideen 30(3): 624-628 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1997: Quatre Epipactis de la flore de France, 1e partie. – L’Orchidophile (128): 167-172 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1997: Quatre Epipactis de la flore de France, 2e partie. – L’Orchidophile (129): 225-229 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1997: Orchis simia Lamk. gevonden in de Voerstreek (België, prov. Limburg). Dumortiera 67: 21-22 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1996: Bestuivingsbiologie van de wespenorchis. – Natuurhistorisch Maandblad (85) 1: 2-6 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1996: Allogamie- und Autogamie-Tendenzen bei einigen Vertretern der Gattung Epipactis. – Berichte Arbeitskreise Heimischer Orchideen 12(2): 4-16 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1995: Allogamie et autogamie du genre Epipactis en France. Cah. Soc. Fr. Orchideen no. 3: 183-185 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen, 1995: La systématique des Orchidées européennes au travers de la morphologie du gynostème. – Cahiers de la Société Française d’Orchidées no. 3: 173-181 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1995: Het zuiltje der Europese orchideeën nader bekeken. – Eurorchis 7: 35-45 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1995: Die Systematik der europäischen Orchideen, illustriert an Hand von Makro-Fotos. – Journal Europäischer Orchideen 27 (1): 93-124 PDF

Claessens, J. & J-M. Lewin 1995: À propos d’Orchis conica Willd. dans l’Aude et les Pyrénées-Orientales et de son hybride avec Orchis ustulata L. – L’Orchidophile (117): 105-112 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1994: Quelques espèces allogames et autogames du genre Epipactis en France. – L’Orchidophile (114): 210-218 PDF

Claessens, J. 1992: Enige opmerkingen over de orchideeën in Andalusië (Spanje). – Eurorchis 4: 37-51 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1992: The floral structure of the genus Epipactis: 108-109. – In: Breederoo, P. & D. Kapteyn den Boumeester: Eurorchis 92

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1991: Het geslacht Epipactis in de Benelux: bloembiologische beschrijvingen en soorttypische kenmerken. Eurorchis 3: 5-38 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1991: De Bruinrode wespenorchis (Epipactis atrorubens) in Limburg. – Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 80(5): 101-103 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1990: De orchideeën van Mittenwald (Zuid-Duitsland). – Eurorchis 2: 95-105 PDF

Claessens, J. & J. Kleynen 1989: Een orchideeënvakantie in de Vercors. – Eurorchis 1: 142-147 PDF

Kleynen, J. 1989: Ophrys x chiesesica hybr. nat. nov. – Naturalistes Belges, 70 (Orchid 3): 87-88 PDF

Reviews

reviews Henrik Æ. Pedersen of The lfower of the European orchid - Form and functionHenrik Æ. Pedersen in Orchid Research Newsletter (Kew Gardens)
“This is a cleverly thought-out book that provides an unprecedented overview of the floral biology and pollination adaptations of the orchids of Europe, based not only on information from the literature but also on original observations that are in some cases quite remarkable. A high degree of stylistic consistency across the generic accounts, both with regard to text and illustrations, adds to the overall impression of an unusually well-edited volume. Last, but not least, the comprehensive selection of macrophotos that are both of impressive technical and aesthetic quality elevates this book to the level of excellence.”” The Flower of the European Orchid simply sets a new standard for photographic illustration of orchid books.”“…I wholeheartedly recommend this magnificent book to anyone who has just the slightest interest in the orchids of Europe, or in the pollination biology of orchids in general.”  PDF


review Simon Tarrant of The lfower of the European orchid - Form and function Simon Tarrant in Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society (Great Britain)
“Arguably, this book provides the most comprehensive account since Charles Darwin’s ground-breaking “Onthe Various Contrivances by Which Orchids are Pollinated by Insects” and in the preface Richard Bateman describes it as“an unparalleled account of the floral structure and reproductive biology of the orchids of Europe and Asia Minor”.”What sets this book apart, indeed its crowning glory, is the outstandingly superb photography, ranging from habitat shots to the use of microscopy to show incredible levels of detail”.”I am particularly impressed by the stunning pictures of pollinating insects with pollinia attached to their bodies as they move from flower to flower”.  PDF

 


review Matthias Svojtka of The lfower of the European orchid - Form and functionMatthias Svojtka in Orchideenkurierder Österreichischen Orchideengesellschaft
“Jean Claessens und Jacques Kleynen, two Dutch nature photographers and orchidologists submit with their new book, a milestone for the knowledge of floral biology and pollination of European orchids.With over 800 color photos, including full-page images plants, flower studies, macro images of the column and the flower-visiting insects, the book presents a never before shown completeness of floral biology of the European orchid species. Taking “The Flower of the European orchid. Form and function” in the hand, whether for scientific reading or admiring the wonderful pictures, one is reminded of the idealized image of science and knowledge of Alexander von Humboldt, who said that in addition to technical precision always the aesthetics of representation should be sought. Scientific data can sometimes be, and this is then a stroke of luck, not only right, but also beautiful, as the current volume of Jean Claessens and Jacques Kleynen impressively proves”.  PDF


review H. Kretzschmar of The flower of the European orchid - Form and functionH. Kretzschmar in Berichte Heimische Orchideen
“The specific nature of the interaction between pollinators and plants is explained in detail. This interaction is captured in many detailed photos which reach a stunning super-macro range; even light-and electron micrographs are included. This is where the authors show an otherwise unseen mastery.””It is difficult to single out particularly striking examples, simply because this book shows a perfect, continuous extremely high quality.”“In sum, this is an immensely readable book with a wealth of valuable information, wonderfully illustrated, a delight for every orchid enthusiast.”  PDF

 


Guus Urlings in De Limburger

“Professor Richard Bateman, internationally renowned authority on orchids cites the book in his preface as a landmark, a standard work for anyone seriously interested in studying orchids.”  PDF


review Martine Lejeune of The flower of the European orchid - Form and functionMartine Lejeune in Natuurhistorisch Maandblad

“Should one buy this book? Yes, of course! Anyone with even the slightest interest in orchids should have this book, no doubt. Can a book be a jewel? Sure, this is one of pure gold. In English? Again, yes, of course! A book of this size (and I mean not A4), filled with such unimaginable amount of energy and enthusiasm is not written for a small language (like Dutch). That should be accessible to everyone, for centuries.”  PDF

 

 


review Bertrand Schatz of The flower of the European orchid - Form and functionBertrand Schatz in l’Orchidophile
“This is first and foremost a very attractive book, where each theme is richly illustrated with didactical images.””Each genus is beautifully illustrated with microscopic images of a whole flower and of important details as well as electronic microscopic images of pollinia and pollen grains. It also contains magnificent photos of pollinators but also of the whole plant, flowers, fruit and various details of the different floral parts.””It is therefore a richly documented work and a must for any orchid lover interested in floral diversity. ”  PDF

 

 


review Gab van Winkel of The flower of the European orchid - Form and functionGab van Winkel in Orchideeën
“What makes this book so special are the incredibly beautiful pictures of habitat and the whole plant as well as macro photographs of the flower and the pollinator.””But the book is more than just a lot of beautiful pictures. It summarizes almost all literature on the topic and describes minutely the construction and pollination of every European orchid genus, with various appendixes, such as a list of all insects per orchid species recorded as a pollinator since 1860. ““A standard work, a monument!”  PDF

 

 


 Albiflora-blog

Form and function of the flower organs are the main focus of the new fascinating book “The Flower of the European Orchid – Form and function” by Jean Claessens and Jacques Kleynen. Illustrated by great macro as well as microscopic photos this important opus presents a comprehensive description of the structure of orchid flowers of all European orchid genera.

 

 

© europeanorchids.com 2018 XML Sitemap